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Helping Students with Their Assignments

Being a student means having a very hectic calendar, whether it’s social, academic or extracurricular. Everybody wants to be able to juggle their responsibilities while balancing their work with their fun time but it’s very difficult to do so and very few are able to. Luckily though, there are numerous ways a student can get a few helping hands with some aspect of their lives and the easiest way to help them handle their hectic schedule is by getting help with their student assignments. Whatever the subject and wherever the city, there are numerous websites online that help students solve the problems step by step.

A modern day student assignment requires a particular level of research and methodology in order to be recognized as institution worthy. These helpful websites employ degree holders and pursuers from various backgrounds who assist in writing papers, thesis’ and other such reports and written explanatory papers. These websites also utilize special software that ensure that the content written is 100% original and not copied directly from any source because authenticity and originality are of the prime importance. The purpose of these websites is to provide student assignment help of the highest quality in order to keep clients happy and coming back for a longer period of time. On top of that, these websites have safe payment options as well. They combine quality of work with quality service thus making the entire experience a pleasant and easy one, something that will remove the stress of a students’ mind about pending work. Most of these websites extend their services to math, computer science, statistics and a very wide range of subjects. By employing dedicated and decorated academic writers they ensure a particular quality of work as well. This way, a student can finish more work than ever before and even use these websites as reference points to add to their own existing knowledge.For more information Click the link.

Websites that assist students with assignments are numerous in nature and just a quick search on the internet would be enough to find numerous such websites that provide great quality homework help for any subject. A few transactions later, a student will find himself with more work completed faster and ready for submittal. These websites also have support teams that are available around the clock in case the client has any queries or questions regarding the work. These websites have in fact become a boon for the average student.

is in fact become a boon for the average student.

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College Education Courses Online – What You Should Know

Education online is a growing field of opportunity for those who are unable to complete a traditional course of college education. Reasons are varied for people being unable to complete normal college information, but may include financial and time constraints.Online college courses tend to cost less than campus courses, but more importantly when receiving your education online you can still work. Holding down a full time job may be essential to some at the same time as studying because they are not only having to pay for their college education but also their course books and day to day living costs. An online college education has a greater flexibility in how you manage your time and so gives you a better chance to still hold a full time job or fulfill other responsibilities. There may also be people who want to further their college education but do not have the time for traditional courses because they work full time, or are raising children and do not want to put them in daycare whilst they attend to their course requirements. For them attending online college courses gives them the flexibility to study after work, or when the children are napping or have gone to bed. Even if you are studying for your degree through a traditional campus institution, there may be courses that are available online, that will give you a little more freedom to perhaps take extra college courses in one semester and less in another if you need to play catch up or else make a semester easier because of upcoming commitments. Many, if not all colleges will now provide course information and education materials online. This is not to allow people to skip classes, or to enable them to sleep through lectures but rather as a support to the education that they are receiving. Courses are available in many areas of study including such areas as computer science and programming, foreign languages, theoretical sciences, the arts-almost everything that a traditional college can offer education in.Other than the requirements for payment for your courses there may be educational prerequisites too. You will also need to purchase the course materials and will need a computer with internet access for the online access to classes. Occasionally a telephone may be needed, to call into a class and listen to a live lecture, or to participate in a seminar or other discussion.Exams may be held online, but there is also likely to be a requirement at some point through the course, for you to sit an exam under normal exam conditions, on campus. There are other times that you may be required to be on campus too and this should be born in mind when considering which course you which to do, because if you sign up for a college a thousand miles away you may struggle when the dean wants to hold interviews to confirm that it really was you that took the course and exam.

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All The Indian States Should Provide Kids Education Free Of Cost

Right to education is one of the basic rights that are given to all the citizens of the country. After independence, many efforts have been made by the Government of the country to educate the people. At the time of independence, the literacy rate of the country was very low of around five to ten percent. The government has taken many steps and recommended many reforms. For spreading education and making it easily accessible to the masses, the Government opened many schools across the country for spreading education. Free education was provided at these schools.

The main aim was to ensure that the people should come to this school and get educated. At that time, the Indian government had asked many big industrial firms and rich people to open schools in order to help them educate people. Many schools were opened by these people to educate the common mass. After the combined efforts by the Government and the nonprofit organizations, the literacy rate in India has increased.

At the end of British rule in 1947, the literacy rate in India was 12% and the present literacy rate in India is 74.04%. India has achieved a lot of success as far as increasing the literacy rate is concerned. But the country has to go a long way as far as achieving the literacy rate is concerned. In various states in India, there is a lot of disparity in the literacy rate. The Government has to take many steps to remove the disparity in terms of education in between various states of the country. Making education is one of few steps that will help in increasing the literacy rate in the country.

One step the Government is taking is that it is opening nursery schools across the country to provide elementary education to the small children. The public schools earlier provided free of cost education to the students. But later a nominal amount was charged. The disparity in literacy rates in various states has to be looked into. The government should also provide the people with public directory India where they look for schools where their children can study. All the facilities and contact information for the schools must be mentioned in the directory. This directory must be available for both offline and online so that the students can access the same from anywhere and anytime.

The writer of this article is a school adviser in OnlineSchoolAdmissions.com and providing free of cost consultancy to parents and schools for fast and easy online school admissions in the pre-schools of India as per their choice. Parents can look for Schools Directory list on the site from where they can get information about Best Schools in Kolkata, CBSE Schools in Faridabad and ICSE schools in Ghaziabad.

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Retired Military Dependent Scholarships

Are you currently a dependent of a retired military member? And if so then you are in luck today. The biggest issue that a lot of in your own situation face is how to pay for their expensive school charges.

School fees are beginning to have increasingly higher and higher each and every single year. You ought not be forced to pay so much for something that you could get for much less. This is where the retired military dependent scholarships award comes in.

The retired military dependent scholarships award is a $10,000 award that could be used for things such as daycare expenses, rent, books, tuition fees and much more. The retired military dependent scholarships is practically free money that could be used for just about anything you need without getting to pay a single dime back. It is much better to take advantage of something like this instead of taking out expensive school loans.

School loans can often take you anywhere from 15 to 50 years to fully pay them back. You don’t would like to be stuck with this large amount of debt for so long.

Then again if you can qualify for the military dependent scholarships you should be excellent to go. In order to qualify you need to meet two imperative needs.

1. you have to be at least 18 years of age and older.

2. You have to be the dependent or spouse of an active or non-active military member.

After fulfilling these two requirements you must be excellent to go. All there is simply left to do is to go to online pages that offers this scholarship award and fill out the simple information required so that you could have the very best chance at winning this free money that you deserve for school.

To get Retired Military Dependent Scholarships just click here: Retired Military Dependent Scholarships

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Courses on Emergency Medical Technicians launched

Courses on Emergency Medical Technicians launched Launched by Vivo Healthcare Institute, the short-term courses are designed to prepare young people for careers in emergency medical care

New Delhi: Vivo Healthcare Institute has launched two-short term courses for Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) for both working professionalsehealth.eletsonline.com and students, enabling them to secure rewarding career in booming healthcare industry.

With a 100 percent placement support, these programs will upgrade skills of healthcare professionals with diploma and degrees in Nursing (GNM) B Pharma and BSc Life Sciences as well as 10+2 students to become Emergency Medical Technicians (EMT) in government, private hospitals, NGOs and health and safety departments of corporate companies.

For healthcare professionals, the ehealth.eletsonline.comduration of Emergency Medical Technician (Basic) course is two months while it is four months course for 10+2 students with Science background. The institute is also offering another highly useful training program-Basic Life Support (BLS) and Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support (ACLS) -to train people for critical response ehealth.eletsonline.comduring the medical emergencies. This program is certified by American Heart Association (AHA).

-With these programs we intend to prepare young people for careers in emergency medical care in a variety of situations and institutions. The -Compassionate caregivers’ that come out of VIVO are required in numerous situations and industries. It will benefit the healthcare industry by filling the lacunae that exist due to the absence of trained personnel to handle emergencies and set a new standard for first response in emergencies in the country,- Vivo Healthcare spokesperson Vikas Tripathi said.

Reports say that there were noehealth.eletsonline.com emergency medical technicians in India less than a decade ago, and only about 10,000 have been trained since 2005 in the nation of 1.2 billion. By contrast, the United States has 240,000 for a population that is a fourth of India’s.

With so many hospitals coming up and their numbers likely to grow in the next 10 years, the need for well qualified and trained EMT staff providing emergency care is increasing.

Vivo Healthcare Institute is the academic initiative of Vivo Healthcare, India’s premier organization in Emergency Medical Services.ehealth.eletsonline.com

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Facts about the Proper Way to Study

The Characteristic of a Good Learning Space/p>

Apart from your classroom, there are more spaces that can provide similar studying atmosphere. All you have to do is to make some adjustments to capture the effect. Here are various characteristic that a good learning space should have. Also, you might wish to include a learn more study less review when you are on it.

Neat Space

You can readily imagine how organized your thoughts would be; just look at the room where you’re studying. Apart from acquiring possible diseases, a dirty room may also discourage learning. So clear the clutter in the floor, place the trash and the used clothing in the waste or clothing basket. Your study space should look more like a safe getaway than a busy workplace.

Place Appropriate Lights

Aside from light positioning, the kind of light should also be considered in your learning room. As much as possible, stay away from fluorescent lights, they could cause more eye pain than knowledge gain. A recommended light would be a desk light. It’s bright enough to focus on what you’re reading without leaving you wincing once in a while. You can also use sun light by placing your reading near the window.

A Comfortable Seat

A comfy seat would almost complete a suitable learning space. You don’t have to avail costly ones; just the ones that are enough to hold your weight and give you a comfy erect sitting. Also, steer clear of the ones that are too comfortable to study in. With too comfortable chairs, rather than getting -A’, you might get a -ZzZ.’

Proper Atmoshpere

Once your space is either hot or too cold, it’s really hard to concentrate. Yeah, you’ve experienced this at school when once the air conditioning system failed. Now, you don’t want this to happen. Ask for help from expert if you must.

Add Some Greenery

Some might find this inappropriate, their reason being -adding to the clutter.’ But think about exactly what a well-placed potted plant can provide – a fresh and relaxing thing you can look upon from time to time.

Take into consideration these suggestions and create a space where you can study comfortably – without distraction or bother.

Scott Young has been finding ways to enhance the way we study things. Now, he has formulated a system that will make you learn more without studying for long hours. Get your copy in this learn more study less review page.

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Have Questions About Homeschooling Get Your Answers Here

Many people want their children to get a good education, but they cannot afford to send them to private school. You can give your children the best education by homeschooling them. When you are aware of the best methods for homeschooling, you can use them to provide your children with the best education you can. Read on for advice that can help you.

If you join a network for homeschooling parents, use any resources provided. You never know what you might find. These organizations often keep things like lesson plans for multiple subjects, including field trip ideas, on file for homeschoolers like you. This helps you work smarter instead of harder and makes your children have a great educational experience.ce.

You should keep some art supplies to be used in the classroom. Arts and crafts can be a valuable option to use in your work area. This also encourages creativity and will allow the child to express themselves through their work. This will help them develop independence and self motivation.

Homeschooling can sometimes inadvertently deprive children of necessary socializing. Get in touch with the school district in your area to see if your child can participate in sports or other activities offered by the school. This allows them to both build a great education and strong social skills.

Ensure that you are firm when it comes to your child completing homework. It is a bad idea to let things fall by the wayside just because instruction is occurring in the home. Let your children know the importance of their schoolwork.

Think carefully about the place in your home where you will carry out homeschooling. Keep the area in a place with the least amount of distractions possible. It needs space for building, acting and dancing, along with surfaces for taking tests and writing. You also have to watch on what your children are doing.

You need to be prepared for the challenge before you start homeschooling your children. Teaching children is not very simple, and there’s a lot of responsibility with it. It is essential that you realize whether or not you have the ability to home school before you are overwhelmed with the demands of teaching at home. If you are fully prepared to take on this new role, only then you should take the next step and move forward with your plans.

Prior to making the decision to homeschool, ask yourself if you are actually qualified to teach your child successfully. You should also evaluate the relationship you and your kids have, in order to identify any issues that would make homeschooling extra challenging.

Now that you know more about homeschooling, you can put the information to good use. These ideas are a great place to start, even if you are just starting to homeschool. It takes proper advice and inspiration to make lessons that work.

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Free Scholarship For Mother

Being a mother you apparently understand that your own priorities are your own youngsters. You have to provide for them best way possible. And the only way to do this is by going back to school. In fact going back to school gives you the chance to earn a ton of money that you might use to provide a better quality of life for both you and your own youngsters. Unfortunately the biggest downside with going back to school is how much it costs.

Nowadays the cost is anywhere from $5000-$25,000 or more per year. This is many money just for school. Typically when faced with this situation many moms will often take out loans. In fact nowadays taking out school loans might be very costly. You might expect to pay higher interest rates and also you will find that you will be forced to pay back thousands upon thousands of dollars back to the school long after you graduate. Lenders have been tightening their credit standards to where you have to have a perfect credit score just get approved for the best rates on school loans.ns.

And as a result of this situation there is now a program on hand that is called the Scholarship For Mother award. The scholarship for mother award is a better option for those that don’t want to put up with paying back thousands of dollars for school fees. The scholarship for mother award offers $10,000 to moms are interested in pursuing their education once again. This money might be used for just about anything from daycare expenses, food, tuition and more. This is basically free money that might be used for anything and doesn’t have to be paid back. In order to take advantage of the scholarship for mother award all a mom contains to do is to go to the web sites on hand that offers the award and simply fill out the basic information required. To finally get instant access to Scholarship For Mother that will pay those expensive school fees just Click Here

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Glendale Outdoor Leadership School

The Glendale Outdoor Leadership School offers a variety of outdoor recreational activities to people in the Spartanburg area. Located in Glendale, South Carolina, the school is a program of the Palmetto Conservation Foundation. The programs goal is to encourage adults and children to lead healthy lifestyles by being active. Some of the activities available at the school include kayaking, fishing, hiking, mountain biking, and climbing.

The school hosts leadership retreats and environmental education seminars. Team building activities and leadership skills are offered to corporations, youth groups, sports teams, and other organizations. Their new Low Challenge Course is a series of activities that help boost team building skills.

The Glendale Outdoor Leadership School is not just open to groups. Individuals can also sign up for classes in indoor rock climbing, paddling, and mountain biking. The schools indoor climbing wall is 20 feet high with more than 1,000 square feet of climbing space. The climbing facility features a bouldering area, crack climbing, and ramped and inverted walls. There are nine belay stations. A climbing assistant is on hand to help during all public climbing sessions. Mountain biking classes are available for riders of all ability levels. Kayaking courses introduce paddlers to the fundamentals of the sport while emphasizing safety. Whether a beginning paddler or one needing a refresher course, participants will quickly gain confidence.

Special Kids Nights are offered on the first Friday of the month from 6-9pm. The kids will enjoy a variety of fun supervised activities such as rock climbing, a nature craft, and games. A snack is included. The cost is $20 for one child with a $5 sibling discount. Glendale Outdoor Leadership School also offers Summer Adventure Camps in June and July for youth 6-15 years of age.

The entire family can enjoy an evening of fun activities on Family Fun Nights, which are scheduled for the second Saturday of each month from 5-8pm. Family members can try indoor rock climbing, team building activities, and a moonlight hike. The evening includes dinner and Smores around the campfire. The cost is $15 for adults and $10 per child. Children must be accompanied by an adult for Family Fun Night. Register ahead of time to reserve a spot.

The Glendale Outdoor Leadership School is located at 270 Wheeling Circle in Glendale, South Carolina, just east of Spartanburg. The facilitys proximity to Lawsons Fork Creek, the Pacolet River, and Croft State Park provides convenient locations to teach courses and practice outdoor skills.

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Disadvantages Of Home Schooling

If you are concerned about the education your child is receiving at either a public or private school, you may have considered the option of home schooling. There are many advantages to home schooling that are easy to think of, but in making your decision you must also consider the disadvantages. Yes, despite all the bonuses you can think of in home schooling your child, there are many disadvantages to the process.

Home schooling is a process that requires a massive amount of time and dedication. If you want to home school your child you must be present for a large part of the day. Kids are kids. Depending on how motivated by academic success your child is, he or she may not require constant supervision. However, in many studies, parental supervision is the key behind the success of home schooling programs.

Parents must also possess instructional skills or access to someone who can teach effectively. Simply putting your child in a room with textbooks will most likely result in home schooling failure. In addition, you will have to purchase materials that public and private schools provide for students.

There is also the need to be able to serve as guidance counselor as your child may require specialized instruction due to a learning disability. Public and private schools usually provide these services with qualified individuals.

One important benefit of an academic institution is the opportunity for children to become properly socialized. Attending school with other children from all walks of life leads to the development of social skills. One of the disadvantages of home schooling is the relative isolation children have from their peers.

Many parents find comfort in blaming the educational system for the shortcomings in their childs academic performance. If you choose to home school you will be accepting full responsibility for the outcome of your childs education. This is more of a burden than it seems. Studies have shown that many home schooling ventures fail due to the fact that the home generally lacks qualified educators. Many parents have gripes about teachers, but the fact is that they generally have to teach large classes filled with children with diverse learning needs. In addition, certified educators have taken teaching classes and have passed state examinations to receive their teaching certificates.

When you approach the issue of home schooling you must examine both sides. Sure, there are plenty of advantages, but if you forget to look into the disadvantages, you may be setting yourself up for failure.

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Discover How To Study Effectively With The Minimum Effort And Get Top In Class

You don’t need to clock 5 hours of study period daily in order to to achieve good grades. It all boils down to realize how to study effectively and making the most of your study time to complete studying what you want to study. As a specialist in the area of educational psychology, I know through many studies and tests that individuals who study longer hours each other will not necessary achieve academic accomplishment if they do not know how to study effectively. Of course I’m not saying you should never put in effort to study, I’m just saying, incorporating a little hard work and study techniques will get you very far up the ranking ladder in school.

So the secret guiding all high achievers in college is knowing how to study effectively. Here are some tips:

Take control of your stress and reduce it to a manageable level. A lot of stress is negative to your cognitive performance and will hinder your capability to memorize information. Procrastination will ultimately lead to a stressful period just before a major occasion such as an exam or project submission dateline. So keeping yourself up late to study TEN chapters the day just before your exams does not help at all. Study regularly from day one of school and you will definitely see a massive improvement in your marks. A little amount of work each day can lead to a huge difference at the end of your semester.
Take little steps. If you have a enormous amount of details to learn and memorize, looking at the pure amount of pages in your textbook will not help your emotional response to the situation. Separate your section into pages of threes. Go through 3 pages by 3 pages. Encourage yourself with just a little sweet after every 3 pages and rejoice, because you’re 3 steps closer to accomplishing your goal. This way, you might find your studying method satisfying and more successful.

Take extra breaks when you’re studying. A person’s highest concentration period is about 90 minutes, so ensure that you take a break after at least every NINETY minutes of studying. Taking more breaks allows you to memorize a lot more information as we can study more efficiently at the start and end of our studying period.
The above are just a few tips among the numerous that can assist you obtain academic success with the smallest amount of work. Studying can be uninteresting sometimes, but with the correct techniques, you can get it over and done with fast yet get distinctions for your exams.

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Psychology Courses Online Why Choose Online Studying

Are you serious about going into psychology? Well, it’s a great choice! But wait, do you have any problems with fulfilling your dream? Job, children, lack of time… Don’t loose your heart! You can still get what you want! So how about self-improvement?

Even if you have no time for visiting psychology school, you still can advance your knowledge in this field. As an option, you may sign up for psychology courses online. This way you’ll be ready to continue your psychology education any moment!

So what do you think about psychology courses online? Some of them are free of charge and another are paid. Of course, you should look for free courses at first!

Psychology courses online is a great way to enrich your insight into psychology and get prepared for further education. Psychology is extremely interesting and competitive field of study. There is so much to learn about it! And remember, any extra knowledge leads you closer to psychology scholarship! It will definitely give you the edge over your rivals. So turn your inability to study traditionally to your advantage! Psychology courses online not only give you additional knowledge, but make you more disciplined and organized.

For better effect combine your psychology courses online with textbook study and online video lectures. Every bit of knowledge you gain through psychology courses online will lead you closer to the goal.

So how does it work? As soon as you sign up for psychology courses online you’ll get all studying materials via e-mail. You can choose the best suitable time for studying. There is no daily schedule, however you must complete the assignment to meet the deadline. It’s up to you how to do this!

Psychology courses online are the perfect lead-in to the basics of psychology. So if you’re just thinking of choosing psychology career path, get acquainted with this field via psychology courses online. This way you’ll be able to understand whether you want to continue with it or not.

Generally these courses include a great variety of subjects within the science of psychology. They are the following:

Introduction to Psychology
Clinical and Counseling Psychology
Developmental Psychology
Cognition and Perception
Neuroscience and Psychology
Personality Psychology
Social Psychology
Learning and Motivation
Research Methods and Statistics

Online psychology courses can help you to choose the branch of psychology that would be the most interesting for you. Moreover, they will help you to get a deeper understanding of the whole science. With online psychology courses you’ll get ready for the interesting and challenging way of psychologist! So if you’re not ready to enter college right now, start from taking up psychology courses online!

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Study Abroad in Canada – A Land of Opportunity

Canada is a country with immense beauty. Its cities have been rated the most livable cities in the world many a times. Lately , due to the relaxed study abroad policies as far as International students is concerned or may it be skilled migration , the country has received great applause from the international market. Similar to the story of United Kingdom and New Zealand who have increased the number of skilled workers required in their country and also relaxed their study abroad norms. Due to this, the international study abroad student market feels that canada is a great destination for realising their dreams as it has great options of work permits as per the length of their courses thus making it easy for students to apply all the knowledge they have gained during their studies in the practical environment. The economy of the country is stable and job market is quite healthy, making it a natural choice for all. Healthy study abroad education schemes like the SPP Program- Student Partnership Program and work permits issued after studying in Canada are policies that have lifted the international education market of Canada manyfold. Under the study abroad – SPP program, the student can apply to study abroad in a certain group of Community colleges and universities in Canada and pay part fees inadvance as a requirement for filing visa papers. Study Abroad education Loan has been made mandatory requirement for applications under the SPP program. Students filing cases under SPP have a high chance of visa acceptance and that too in a short span of 15-20 days. Also, the policy of issuing post study abroad work permit after completion of studies on time provides an opportunity to the student who wish to explore the work market in Canada. Any student who completes one year of studies in Canada will be entitled for a post study abroad work permit of 1 -2 years and for students who have studied in Canada for 2 years or more will be entitled for a 3 year work permit. Also, the Immigration statistics according to a recent research done named Immigrant Earnings Differences Across Admission Categories and Landing Cohorts, Canadian independent skilled immigrants had “Consistently and substantially” the highest earnings of four categories of immigrants. A comparison was done for the annual earning of different immigration groups including independent skilled migrants, economic migrants, family class migrants and refugees. The average earning of Skilled Immigrants exceeeded the rest of the lot by around 35% for men and 45% for women.

Planning to study abroad in Canada ? Ezyadmissions helps students to make the right overseas study decision. The company currently deals in six study abroad destinations namely, study abroad in Canada, USA, New Zealand, Singapore, UK and Australia. Ezyadmissions is A Unit of Foresee Education Consultancy.

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Education Tax Refund keep your receipts!

Last year, $400 million in tax benefits went unclaimed by parents of school children for education expenses. This year, parents are being urged to keep their receipts for tax time to alleviate the financial burden that back to school expenses place on many parents. The Australian governments Education Tax Refund (ETR) scheme provides up to 50% back on a range of childrens school expenses for both primary and senior school students.

With a need for new school books, textbooks, uniforms and other equipment, the back-to-school period puts on a strain on many parents purse strings. So make sure you understand how you can claim back up to 50% of your childs education expenses come tax time.

-What can I claim? Under the ETR, parents can claim on education expenses including home and personal laptops, computer related equipment, internet connections, computer repairs, educational computer software, school textbooks, learning related texts, and stationary. For a comprehensive list on what is claimable see .

-What is the maximum amount I can claim? For the 201011 financial year, the maximum amount you can claim is $794 of expenses for primary school children, receiving a maximum refund of $397. For secondary school children you can claim $1,588 in expenses receiving a maximum refund of $794 per child.

-What about school uniforms? Kids school uniforms purchased after July 1 2011 will for the first time be included in the ETR. Parents will be able to claim on uniform costs for the 2011-12 financial year.

-NB: To claim money back on education expenses, parents must keep their receipts in order to calculate your refund and to have them on hand as proof of purchase.

The ETR is the governments way of helping with the costs of educating children, so make sure you make the most of this tax-refund scheme. Youll halve the costs of textbooks, computers and in the future Australian school uniforms, which will relieve the financial burden of educating your children.
Are you keeping your receipts?

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More from the Sister Study

In the March 17, 2009 issue of Life Extension Update, we reported the finding from the Sister Study, a cohort of healthy sisters of breast cancer patients, of a beneficial association between multivitamin use and telomere length, a biomarker of aging. Telomeres, which are repeating DNA sequences that cap the ends of chromosomes, shorten with increased cellular aging.

In articles published in the February and March, 2009 issues of the journal Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, further findings from the Sister Study concerning the impact of lifestyle on telomere length were revealed.

In the February, 2009 issue, Christine Parks, PhD, of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and her associates evaluated the effect of stress on telomere length in 647 Sister Study participants. Telomere length in DNA from blood samples was measured, and stress hormone levels in urine were assessed. Questionnaires completed by the subjects provided information on perceived stress levels.

Study participants, on average, reported low stress levels. “Even so, women who reported above-average stress had somewhat shorter telomeres, but the difference in telomere length was most striking when we looked at the relationship between perceived stress and telomere length among women with the highest levels of stress hormones,” Dr Parks observed. “Among women with both higher perceived stress and elevated levels of the stress hormone epinephrine, the difference in telomere length was equivalent to or greater than the effects of being obese, smoking or 10 years of aging.”

In the report that appeared in the March, 2009 issue of the journal, the effect of past and current body mass index (BMI) on telomere length was examined. Sister Study participants whose BMI categorized them as overweight or obese before or during their thirties and whose weight status was maintained were found to have shorter telomeres compared to subjects who became overweight at an older age. “This suggests that duration of obesity may be more important than weight change per se, although other measures of overweight and obesity were also important,” stated lead author Sangmi Kim, PhD, also of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. “Our results support the hypothesis that obesity accelerates the aging process”.

“We anticipate a wealth of information to come out of the Sister Study,” predicted Dale Sandler, PhD, chief of the Epidemiology Branch at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and principal investigator of the Sister Study. “Not only do we hope to find out more about the environmental and genetic factors that might lead to breast cancer, we also want to learn more about how factors such as stress, diet and exercise might impact cancer and other disease risks.”

“Together these two studies reinforce the need to start a healthy lifestyle early and maintain it,” National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences director Linda Birnbaum, PhD, concluded. “These papers remind us that there are things people can do to modify their behavior and live healthier lives, such as maintain a healthy weight and cultivate healthy responses to stress.”